Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence carried out by machines. In computer science, an ideal “intelligent” machine is a flexible agent that perceives its environment and carries out actions that maximize its chances of success in some objective or task.1 Colloquially, the term artificial intelligence is applied when a machine it mimics the “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “perceiving,” “reasoning,” “learning,” and “solving problems.” 2 Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define artificial intelligence as “the ability of a system to correctly interpret external data, to learn from that data and to use that knowledge to achieve specific tasks and goals through flexible adaptation. “3 As machines become more and more capable, technology that some Once it was thought that intelligence was required to be removed from the definition. For example, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an example of “artificial intelligence” having become a common technology.4 Technological advances still classified as artificial intelligence are autonomous driving systems or those capable of playing chess. or Go.5
According to Takeyas (2007), AI is a branch of computational science responsible for studying computational models capable of performing activities of human beings based on two of its main characteristics: reasoning and behavior.6
In 1956, John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence,” and defined it as “the science and ingenuity of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs.”
There are also different types of perceptions and actions, which can be obtained and produced, respectively, by physical sensors and mechanical sensors in machines, electrical or optical pulses in computers, as well as by bit inputs and outputs of a software and its software environment.
Several examples are in the area of systems control, automatic planning, the ability to respond to diagnoses and consumer inquiries, handwriting recognition, speech recognition and pattern recognition. AI systems are currently part of the routine in fields such as economics, medicine, engineering and the military, and has been used in a variety of software applications, strategy games, such as computer chess, and other video games.
Artificial intelligence categories
Heuristic search. We can define a heuristic as a trick or strategy that greatly limits the search for solutions to large spaces of problems. Therefore, when faced with a problem, it helps us to select the bifurcations within a tree with more possibilities; This restricts the search, although an adequate solution is not always guaranteed. All that must be taken into account so that a heuristic is adequate is that it provides us with solutions that are good enough. In addition, with the use of the heuristic search, it will not be necessary to rethink a problem every time it is faced, since if it has already been raised previously, it will suggest the way in which to proceed to solve it.
Representation of knowledge. Representation is a key issue when finding appropriate solutions to the problems posed. If we analyze the term more closely we find several definitions: according to Barr and Feigenbaum, knowledge representation is a combination of data structures and interpretation procedures that, if used correctly by a program, can exhibit intelligent behavior; According to Fariñas and Verdejo, Artificial Intelligence aims to build computational models that, when executed, solve tasks with results similar to those obtained by a person, so the central theme of this discipline is the study of knowledge and its management; and according to Buchanan and Shortliffe, the Representation of Knowledge in an Artificial Intelligence program means choosing a series of conventions to describe objects, relationships, and processes in the world. Much of the effort made in the achievement of smart computers, according to Rahael, has been characterized by the continuous attempt to get more and better knowledge representation structures, together with adequate techniques for their manipulation, that would allow the intelligent resolution of some of the problems already raised. Another important characteristic is the inclusion in the artificial intelligence programs, although separately, of the knowledge and the unit that controls and directs the search for solutions. Given this provision, in these programs the modification, extension and updating of the same is simple.
The reasoning that can have any person, has proven to be one of the most difficult aspects of modeling “inside” a computer. Common sense often helps us to foresee a multitude of current facts and phenomena, but, as we have said, it is very complicated to represent them in a computer, since the reasoning is almost always inaccurate and that its conclusions and rules are based on they are only approximately true.